My research paper will examine the development of the Venice Film Festival as a result of the totalitarian regime of Mussolini and its relationship to the socio-political setting of Italy during the 1930s-1950s.
1934 The historic meeting between Hitler and Mussolini in Venice
Inaugurazione del Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia (1935)
Relevant books, websites, and articles….
Alloway, Lawrence. The Venice Biennale 1895-1968 from salon to goldfish bowl. Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1968.
Bondanella, Peter. The Films of Roberto Rossellini. New York: Cambridge University Press,
Bondanella states in this section of his book that Mussolini’s regime added cinema to the internationally famous arts festival in Venice so that it could compete with Hollywood.
Editori, Marsilio. La Biennale di Venezia, Exhibition Catalogue. 51 ed. New York: Rizzoli International, 2005.
Kezich, Tullio. “The Venice Film Festival. 1950.” Hollywood Quarterly 5.4 (1951): 373-379.
I found this article to be very helpful in understanding the globalization of film production and the shifts in popularity from French, American, Asian, and Italian films.
Michalczyk, John. The Italian Political Filmmakers. Canbury, NJ: Associated University Press, 1986.
“La Biennale di Venezia – Entry page sezione cinema.” La Biennale di Venezia – Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2011. <http://www.labiennale.org/en/cinema/index.html>.
The Biennale’s website provides a really useful timeline with changes and adaptations made to the Biennale such as the inclusion of films and music.
Leprohon, Pierre. The Italian Cinema. Trans. Roger Greaves and Oliver Stallybrass (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972) 65-74.
Leprohon’s main focus in this section about the Venice film festival is that by 1940 the festival was almost entirely an Italian and German affair. Between the Italian and German governments, both countries imposed their fascist governments onto government employed directors who showcased their work at the Venice Film Festival.
University of Pennsylvania, “The Cinema Under Mussolini.” Last modified 1996. Accessed October 1, 2011.http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/italians/resources/Amiciprize/1996 /mussolini.html
This article is helpful to my research because it outlines Mussolini’s thoughts on cinema for Italy in a broad scope.
Valck, Marijke de. Film Festivals: From European Geopolitics to Global Cinephilia. Amsterdam University Press, 2007
Valck provides a current evaluation of film festivals around the world which will help me contextualize the post- World War II success of the film festival.
Verdone, Mario. “The Italian Cinema from Its Beginnings to Today,” Hollywood Quarterly. Vol
5, No 3 (Spring 1951) University of California Press
A very helpful publication that reviews the rise of Italian cinema, its effect during the reign of Mussolini, and post WWII filmmaking.
Wilson, Simon. “The Venice Biennale.” The Burlington Magazine 118.883 (1976): 723-727.
Wilson’s article was helpful because it explained how the Biennale began as an exhibit of salon paintings and sculptures but morphed into a show place for the international avant-garde.
Wiskemann, Elizabeth. Fascism in Italy: Its Development and Influence. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1969.
Wiskermann’s book is an insightful overview of Mussolini’s political and socio-economic actions during his reign as a totalitarian leader. While she doesn’t speak about the governments influence on cinema, she does provide a solid context to place cinema around when considering the government’s complete control.
Wood, Mary. Italian Cinema. New York: Berg Publishers, 2005, 1-15.
In regards to distribution and viewing of international films, Mary Wood states American and French films which were considered the most popular during the 1940s disappeared from festivals and theatres in order to allow the Italian film industry to grow and develop. Wood also goes on to explain the influence of organizations such as L’Unione Cinematografica Italiana (UCI) which were developed in order to modernize the commercial film industry (The idea of corportism as a means of power).
Interlibrary Loan Requests:
|117478||Book||Film festivals : culture, people, and power on the global screen /||Wong, Cindy H., 1961-||Request Sent|
|117506||Book||Fascism in film : the Italian commercial cinema, 1931-1943 /||Landy, Marcia, 1931-||Request Sent|
|117507||Book||Cinema and fascism : Italian film and society, 1922-1943 /||Ricci, Steven.||Request Sent|
– Introduction: The “Exposizione d’Arte Cinematografica” was introduced as an addition to the Venice Biennale in 1932 by the authoritarian regime of Mussolini and subsequently the festival has a dynamic history because of its development during World War II and due to the emphasis on international films, changes in evaluation and awards have changed over the years. My research paper will examine the development of the Venice Film Festival as a result of the totalitarian regime of Mussolini and its relationship to the socio-political setting of Italy during the 1930s-1950s.
– Historical background on the film festival
– When and how it was established
– Awards and juries
– Important film makers
– Directors who attended LUCE (L’Unione Cinematografica Educativa)
– Private filmmakers
– Futurist Cinema- “The Futurist Cinema” Manifesto from September 11, 1916
– Elaboration on the “International” emphasis of the festival
– How the festival was meant to boast Italian productions
– Competition with other festivals
– Cannes film festival and the agreement they made with one another in 1946
– Mussolini’s thoughts on cinema
– Cinecittà: the city Mussolini envisioned would compete with Hollywood’s studios
– Vittorio Mussolini’s relationship to film and his legacy in the Italian film industry